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Акция на ноябрь - декабрь - 0 рублей годовое обслуживание!
Раньше, когда карта имела платное годовое обслуживание, при назначении пин кода годовое обслуживание автоматически списывалось - карта считалась активированной. Проценты начинали считаться с этого момента.
Теперь годового обслуживания нет, и целевым действием считается совершение любой покупки от 100 рублей. Фактически целевое действие не изменилось. Это активации карты - то есть списание с неё некой суммы денег.

Минимальная стоимость годового обслуживания -590 рублей. ( неактуально до конца декабря)

Выпуск карты бесплатно
Кредитный лимит до 150 000 руб.
100 дней без % по кредиту на покупки и снятие наличных
Беспроцентный период начинается при первой покупке, снятии наличных или иной операции по карте
Процентная ставка от 9,9% годовых

Оформить заявку
Mining / Re: Bitcoin mining.
Last post by Bitcoin - Feb 28, 2021, 09:30 am

Why Hive OS is the best Mining operation system we have so far.|4:19
Mining / Re: Bitcoin mining.
Last post by Bitcoin - Feb 28, 2021, 09:30 am

Nicehash OS (NHOS) How to Install, Setup and Configure *Updated for 2020*|26:28
Mining / Re: Bitcoin mining.
Last post by Bitcoin - Feb 28, 2021, 09:29 am
Mining machines, namely rigs, exist in various kinds, powers, prices, power consumption rates, and brands. The device that you choose to do the act of mining with, determines a coefficient of the profit that you will make through this market. So be patient and careful to make a perfect choice.
The first and foremost factor to consider, in choosing a mining machine to buy, is its power or Hash Rate with which it works. Mining machines are different in the rate of hash. But hash rate is not something you can calculate by a formula. It is determined empirically. To reach this, you should ask someone who has used the same kind of machine and has measured how many hashes per second it actually performs for a given hash algorithm. In general there is no guarantee about the data the seller provides. The best way to figure out your hash rate would be to actually run the hardware and see what happens or to ask someone you trust on, who has utilized the same kind of machine, to inform you.
Next, you have to pay attention to the price. The cheaper your rig, the sooner your initial investment will be back. Of course try not to choose a machine so cheap that it has no value. There are different sites and markets where you can see the prices of machines to choose one. At the time of writing this journal, the prices of Bitcoin mining machines fluctuate between the range of 300 to 2,800,000 dollars. You should choose the one most appropriate one for your budget and goals.
In addition, you should be aware of the type of hardware of your future rig. Before the advent of GPUs for computing bitcoins algorithm, CPUs were used. However, GPU renders images more quickly than a CPU due to its parallel processing architecture. This is what enables the GPU to carry out multiple calculations at the same time. The CPU has less Arithmetic Logical Units, and so when it comes to hash required proof of work, its performance is slow. As compared to GPU and CPU mining , ASIC is more preferred. Its mining-hardware solves very complex algorithms. On the other hand, GPU and CPU mining hardware decode graphics algorithms and processor-based algorithms, respectively. However, the attraction GPU mining hardware holds is its offer of more hash power compared to CPU and low electricity cost compared to ASICs.
besides the amount of power consumption of the chosen rig is another salient factor to consider. Power is an expensive energy and if you are a professional miner with a professional site for mining power costs surely is one of your most important considerations. So be careful to choose the most efficient mining rig for your trade. Finally, one can choose among different brands of these digital huge rigs. As you can see, despite the profit potential of mining bitcoin, your Bitcoin mining hardware's upfront and energy costs can actually do harm to your bank account. Picking the wrong hardware could cost you more money to operate than the amount of funds you earn mining bitcoin with it.
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How to Rent Hash Power For Speculative Crypto Mining in 2020.
Cryptocurrency mining has become increasingly more difficult to participate as time has gone on, not only it takes more mining equipment to stay competent in the increasingly growing industry, but it's also more and more difficult to get your foot in the door.
However, there's an alternative method, that doesn't require the high initial cost to get started, and which is available to anyone. Because you can actually purchase hash power from other miners and participate with speculative mining coins not many are aware of.
That's right, you can actually rent hash power and make decent stable extra income.
Note: Investment (including spec mining) involves risks and profits are not guaranteed!
What is speculative crypto mining? Can you make money with speculative mining? How can you start renting hash power? NiceHash MiningRigRentals How to buy hash power from the marketplace Additional hash renting tips and tricks The bottom line.
What is speculative crypto mining?
Speculative mining or simply (spec mining) is a concept in which cryptocurrency users participate mining newly launched coin in order to profit from future price appreciation.
Contrary to the usual mining behavior in which users mine the most profitable coins, Spec mining means users participate in mining newly launched unknown coins with zero or very little ROI that they expect to establish value over time.
In other words, speculative mining is nothing but investing hash rate into projects that have very low difficulty and which not many people are aware of. These types of projects are less likely to be seen in common places such as Coinmarketcap, or other large websites. And many times these coins are in their early stages which means there may or may not be even mining pools available, the code can have bugs, and it's just a mess, to begin with.
Anyhow this is also where the most cryptocurrency profits are generated with, imagine for example mining Ethereum at its early stage of $1 a coin, and holding on to modern-day, you'd be rolling in cash never having to worry about making money again.
Can you make money with speculative mining?
The obvious answer is: Of course you can, however, it may also be difficult to get started, not only you have to find precious coins which not many are aware of, but you also have to accept that there are no gains without some risks involved.
Successful speculative cryptocurrency mining depends on several factors. First of all, you have to figure your initial investment capital, the mining difficulty, and the current outlook for the future of the coin.
And of course, you also have to keep eye on the middle, long term, and short term profitability. As more miners discover the newly launched coin you are participating, the difficulty also can increase exponentially.
This is why it's important to establish your risk factors, and whether you are mining for fun, or for-profit as each scenario may require you to act differently.
How can you start renting hash power?
You can start mining any coin you like, by following these four simple steps:
Register a new account either on NiceHash or MiningRigRentals. Find the coin you want to mine and register on the pool you want to mine that coin in. Place a new order on the hash power marketplace with the right algorithm. Sit back and relax, check your income at the chosen pool.
And that's about it after you have your rented miner set up, it will keep mining till you run out of funds. Lets now take a more detailed look at what both of these platforms have to offer.
NiceHash is the largest crypto mining hash power marketplace that connects cryptocurrency miners either to purchase or sell hash power. The platform offers an intuitive interface that lets users easily either sell hash power by pointing their miners at NiceHash while simultaneously giving buyers the option to point this hash rate at their chosen cryptocurrency.
For miners interested in selling hash power, the platform automatically chooses the highest most profitable algorithms to mine (based on buyers' orders) and converts profits automatically to Bitcoin.
NiceHash hash power marketplace works entirely also on Bitcoin, meaning it's the currency used for both purchasing and selling hash power. And although buyers can deposit many other cryptocurrencies, in order to finalize hash power order one has to still exchange those other cryptocurrencies to Bitcoin.
All in all, NiceHash has a total of 34 mining algorithms supported including of course Bitcoins original Sha-256, Scrypt, DaggerHashimoto, CryptoNight, Blake, Equihash, and many others.
And because NiceHash prioritizes the most popular stratum mining pool protocol, the amount of mining pools capable of being used is also quite significant.
To get started renting hash power with NiceHash is actually quite simple, all you have to do is to register an account with the platform using your email address. From where you can deposit Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies and create an order for the hash power.
Note that NiceHash also operates as an exchange, and no KYC documents whatsoever are required as long as you do not want to use fiat currencies.
MiningRigRentals or simply MRR is one of the largest and most powerful cryptocurrency mining hash rate marketplaces.
The platform offers a large set of advanced tools for miners interested in leasing their mining rigs. This includes the ability to lease your mining rig at the competitive price you want, meaning renters are forced to rent and the price you set.
Moreover, leasing has very little risk as you can also set failover pools to mine directly on the pool while waiting for someone to rent from you.
Both buyers and sellers can pay and get paid on multiple cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, Bcash, Ethereum, or Dash.
MiningRigRentals also absolutely dominates when it comes to the number of mining algorithms they support, with a total of over 120+ algorithms users are sure to find one to suit them.
To get started with MiningRigRentals nothing but an account is required, simply register with your email address, and deposit some cryptocurrencies to get begin with.
Note the MRR platform is not operating any type of exchange services, therefore you cannot change your currency of choice within the platform, and must do so before the deposit.
How to buy hash power from the marketplace.
This is a simplified step by step section to guide you through the process of purchasing hash power on either NiceHash or MiningRigRentals hash power marketplaces.
To get started you'll have to register either on NiceHash or MiningRigRentals and deposit some cryptocurrencies. While MiningRigRentals have no minimum order size, the minimum order size for NiceHash is 0.005 BTC. Make sure you have at least this amount in your account or you cannot create an order, to begin with! Before you create any orders, you must figure out what coin you want to mine, and which pool you want to mine that coin in. Proper research must be done at this point to get everything correct going forward. We suggest checking both WhatToMine and CoinWarz for coin profitability and pool examples. Register at your chosen pool provider, and create a worker. Each pool usually has a detailed help section on how to do this, as it can be slightly different for each pool but the concept is always the same. (Worker requires both username and password.) Start the hash power order process by choosing your algorithm, note that both platforms have a slightly different approach to this, as with NiceHash buyers set the price, while in MiningRigRentals sellers set the price. Add the required pool information on the hash power market order. This means you have to make the stratum server of your miner to point at the right pool such as: " stratum+tcp://″ don't forget to include the worker username and password. (Verify your pool information before making an order.) If everything is correct with the algorithm you've chosen and the pool you want to mine, simply place a new order on the hash power marketplace. And that's it, you can now check your income at a chosen pool. Note that the pool itself is responsible for your mining rewards. And the hash power marketplaces only guarantee the delivery of hashing power you purchased.
Mining / Re: Bitcoin mining.
Last post by Bitcoin - Feb 28, 2021, 09:29 am
BF Labs, Inc. Processes $1 Million Bitcoin Merchant Transaction for Institutional Bitcoin mining Hardware Purchase.
Butterfly Labs Announces $1 Million Down-Payment on Multi-Million Dollar Order for Next Generation Bitcoin mining Hardware. Deposit will help enable production of innovative 28nm Monarch card.
Copy of receipt supplied by Bitpay.
We're pleased to be the preferred hardware supplier for HashTrade,
Overland Park, KS (PRWEB) October 31, 2013.
Butterfly Labs (BF Labs Inc.), the Kansas-based leader in Bitcoin mining technology, has announced that it has processed a payment of One Million dollars in Bitcoin through Bitpay - the largest single transaction ever executed by a Bitcoin payment processor.
These funds represent a down-payment on a multi-million dollar order from HashTrade, a sister company of one of Butterfly Labs' largest existing customers. The multi-PetaHash order is for Butterfly's innovative 28nm Monarch card, and these initial funds will be used to enable production of products which the company will begin delivering in December 2013.
"We're pleased to be the preferred hardware supplier for HashTrade," said Jeff Ownby, VP of Marketing for Butterfly Labs. "Our Monarch cards have been designed for easy deployment in large scale Bitcoin mining operations. The PCI form factor allows operators great flexibility using only common, off the shelf cases & power supplies. In high performance mode, significant performance beyond published figures can be realized. Then, should power conservation be the greater operational need, cards can be run in their efficiency mode with an almost halving of power consumption per unit of work performed."
This is a major endorsement of Butterfly Labs' technology and ability to deliver, from one of the industry's most significant players."Butterfly's technology is robust and reliable and our relationship is very strong," said Greg Bachrach, Co-Founder and CEO of HashTrade. "Having worked with their equipment now for some time, we are confident of Butterfly Labs' ability to deliver based on their multi-generational experience designing, producing and delivering high performance mining equipment. Because of this we feel that Butterfly Labs is one of the only institutional hardware vendors uniquely positioned to deliver exactly what they advertise."
About Butterfly Labs Butterfly Labs (BF Labs, Inc) is a Kansas-based manufacturer of hardware used for securing online transactions in the Bitcoin and other networks. Visit
Contact Jeff Ownby 708-601-4170 jeff(at)butterflylabs(dot)com.
About Hashtrade HashTrade is a premier data processing organization enabling all individuals to benefit from mining Bitcoins without having to purchase or operate any hardware. HashTrade will soon be offering hashing contracts to the public so anyone interested in profiting from Bitcoin mining will be able to do so in a simple and friendly way. Visit
About BitPay BitPay is a Payment Service Provider (PSP) specializing in eCommerce, B2B, and enterprise solutions for virtual currencies. Visit
Contact Jan Jahosky 407-331-4699 jan(at)bitpay(dot)com.
How a total n00b mined $700 in bitcoins.
We take a Butterfly Labs Bitcoin miner, plug it in, and make it (virtually) rain.
Lee Hutchinson - Jun 29, 2013 10:00 pm UTC.
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Toiling in the Bitcoin mines.
How a total n00b mined $700 in bitcoins Gold in them bits: Inside the world's most mysterious Bitcoin mining company View more stories.
There is a whirring, whining presence in my dining room. I notice it every time I walk through. Every day, it sucks down about one full kilowatt-hour of electricity. In a year, it will consume almost $100 worth of juice--and that's on top of the $274 it costs to buy the box in the first place. Oh, and it's hot, too. If I moved it into my office and could stand the noise, I could keep a cup of coffee comfortably warm on top of the thing. Why on earth would anyone want such a disagreeable little machine in their home?
The short answer: every day, that machine magically generates something like $20 in bitcoins.
The BFL miner: A video intro.
A newbie and his miner.
Ars Senior Business Editor Cyrus Farivar tapped me on the shoulder a few weeks back with a proposition. "I've got a Butterfly Labs Bitcoin mining box," he explained. "There aren't that many in the wild right now. I'm working on a story about the company, but I'm about to go on vacation. Do you want to see if you can get the thing working while I'm out?"
I was intrigued. Bitcoin? That's the electronic currency that's quickly rocketed from lame nerd project to ludicrously valuable hot topic, right? I didn't know a lot about the world of Bitcoin other than the fact that "mining" them involved people building custom PCs with tons of video cards to handle the math. I certainly didn't know how to "mine" bitcoins myself or what to do with the things once I had them. I just knew that people eventually try to trade them in for cash somehow (but how to do that was also a total mystery).
And yet here was the opportunity to take a piece of hardware I'd never heard of and see if I could use it to magically create some money out of nowhere. I told Cyrus to send me the Butterfly Labs miner. As he trekked off to Peru for his vacation, I settled in with the little black box.
Butterfly Labs is a company that has drawn a fair amount of controversy for what the Bitcoin community at large perceives as a string of broken promises. The company sells ASIC-based Bitcoin miners--machines that are built around customized chips that do nothing except compute SHA-256 hashes very quickly. Its smallest miner (the one I had to get working) is codenamed "Jalapeño" and computes a bit over five billion hashes per second (or 5GH/s). The problem is that Butterfly Labs started selling the machines long before it actually had a product to sell. It began taking paid-in-full preorders back in mid-2012, and thousands of customers opened their wallets for Bitcoin miners ranging from the small 5GH/s miner at $274 all the way up to the large 500Gh/s miner, which costs $22,484.
Butterfly Labs promised certain performance targets to customers--it initially felt confident that its application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designs would deliver one billion hashes per second for every 1.1 watt of power consumed. This proved extremely optimistic. Hardware delivery slipped multiple times. Now, a full year later, the first few real live Butterfly Labs boxes are finally being shipped, though no small number (as many as 30) were sent to journalists to review rather than to paying customers.
But when the little black box showed up on my doorstep, I had no idea about the deep and extremely vocal Bitcoin community or the story behind Butterfly Labs. I didn't really even fully understand what the miner did. I simply knew that I wanted to get this thing working and make some money.
Out of the box.
The 5GH/s Jalapeño miner is a black rounded cube with a brushed metal finish. The only connectors on the exterior of the device are on the back: a mini-USB port for data and a power plug. Near the power plug are a series of small red LEDs that the device uses to tell you its status, though there was no documentation in the box to explain what the LEDs meant. The front of the cube contains another red LED to indicate power.
There are two sets of vents, one low on the front and the other high on the rear. The device's internal 80 mm fan draws cooler air up from the front through the fins of the large heat sink mounted on the ASIC chip. It expels the now-warm air out through the top vents.
Rent Bitcoin mining rig.
RentaHash: Rent & Lease Cryptocurrency Mining Equipment?
RentAHash , found online at, is a mining rig rental platform. Find out how it works today in our review.
What Is RentaHash?
RentAHash , or Rent A Hash, makes it easy to rent various crypto mining rigs, including Scrypt, Ethash, X11, SHA-256, and other miners.
You pay to rent the rigs online. You can view reviews and comments for some of the most popular miners on the platform, including the speeds of each miner and the algorithm in which that miner specializes.
One of the unique things about RentAHash is that it exclusively uses BCH. You cannot send BTC to the platform.
RentaHash Available Mining Algorithms.
RentAHash has all of the following miners available to rent:
Scrypt Ethash SHA-256 X11 X13 X15.
RentaHash Customization Options.
You can customize your miner search based on all of the following options:
Rig Size: Small rigs, big rigs, small farms, medium rigs, and farms, with rigs separated by MH/s hashrates Rental Duration: 3h, 6h, 12h, 24, 48h, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days Miscellaneous: Support and no support; quality (high or low reviews, based on user feedback)
You can also lease or rent rigs through the platform.
How To Rent A Rig With RentAHash.
RentAHash makes it easy to rent a rig through the platform. Search for rigs using the customization options listed above. Or, pick your rig from the list of the most popular rentals.
Each rig has its own sales page. You can view ratings on that page, as well as a description from the rig's owner. You can view the number of rentals that rig has completed, including the complete rental history for the rig.
Other crucial information includes the price, the hashrate per day, and the mining algorithm.
You can also view a user profile for the owner of the rig, including the number of rigs that owner has listed through RentAHash.
Overall, here's how the rental process works with RentAHash:
You top your account up using BCH using your account's BCH address (do not send BTC) You choose your rig and the duration of the rental period You choose which pool you want to mine (you will need the pool Stratum URL, a worker name, and a worker password) Wait for your BCH payment to be confirmed 1 time if it's not already in your balance Your rig will start mining.
That's it! RentAHash only supports Stratum pools (although 99% of mining pools use Stratum).
RentAHash Fee.
RentAHash charges a fee of 3%. This fee is added on top of the advertised price of the rig. You pay this fee as the renter of the rig.
RentaHash Conclusion.
RentAHash is the new online home of BetaRigs. The BetaRigs website transitioned to become RentAHash in early January 2018.
" Rig " is any device that is used for the act of mining . But what is the difference between mining PCs and special mining rigs? Mining desktop PCs are used for other day to day tasks in addition to mining, as other normal PCs, but the mining rigs are specially-designed for the sole purpose of mining cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin. The mining rigs have no other skills or uses but because of their speciality, they generate the best possible mining process that please you with the maximum return. PCs are not powerful means of mining but if you do not want to spend on a device that does a single task, you can buy a powerful one that does a comparatively good job.
Mining / Re: Beim Bitcoin mining ,,schü...
Last post by Bitcoin - Feb 28, 2021, 09:28 am
Ps3 Bitcoin mining 2013.
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) ist ein kryptographischer Algorithmus, der von Bitcoin verwendet wird, um sicherzustellen, dass das Geld nur von seinen rechtmäßigen Inhabern ausgegeben werden kann.
1 Beschreibung 1.1 Vergleich der Schlüssel- und Signaturgröße zu DSA 1.2 Konzept 2 Sichetheit 3 Siehe auch 4 Ressourcen.
Vergleich der Schlüssel- und Signaturgröße zu DSA [ Bearbeiten ]
Wie bei der Kryptographie mit elliptischen Kurven im Allgemeinen ist die Bitgröße des öffentlichen Schlüssels, von der angenommen wird, dass sie für ECDSA benötigt wird, etwa doppelt so groß wie die Sicherheitsstufe in Bit. Bei einer Sicherheitsstufe von 80 Bit (dh ein Angreifer benötigt zum Ermitteln des privaten Schlüssels maximal etwa 280 Vorgänge) würde die Größe eines öffentlichen ECDSA-Schlüssels beispielsweise 160 Bit betragen, während die Größe eines öffentlichen DSA-Schlüssels mindestens beträgt 1024 Bits. Andererseits ist die Signaturgröße sowohl für DSA als auch für ECDSA die gleiche: ungefähr 4 t Bits, wobei t das Sicherheitsniveau ist, gemessen in Bits, dh ungefähr 320 Bits für ein Sicherheitsniveau von 80 Bits.
Konzept [ Bearbeiten ]
Einige Konzepte im Zusammenhang mit dem elliptischen Kurven-Algorithmus für digitale Signaturen:
Privater Schlüssel: Eine geheime Nummer, die nur der Person bekannt ist, die sie erstellt hat. Ein privater Schlüssel ist im Wesentlichen eine zufällig generierte Nummer. In Bitcoin kann jemand mit dem privaten Schlüssel, der den Geldern des öffentlichen Kontos entspricht, das Geld ausgeben. In Bitcoin ist ein privater Schlüssel eine einzelne vorzeichenlose 256-Bit-Ganzzahl (32 Byte). Öffentlicher Schlüssel: Eine Nummer, die einem privaten Schlüssel entspricht, aber nicht geheim gehalten werden muss. Ein öffentlicher Schlüssel kann aus einem privaten Schlüssel berechnet werden, jedoch nicht umgekehrt. Ein öffentlicher Schlüssel kann verwendet werden, um zu bestimmen, ob eine Signatur echt ist (dh mit dem richtigen Schlüssel erzeugt wird), ohne dass der private Schlüssel preisgegeben werden muss. In Bitcoin werden öffentliche Schlüssel entweder komprimiert oder nicht komprimiert. Komprimierte öffentliche Schlüssel sind 33 Byte und bestehen aus einem Präfix (entweder 0x02 oder 0x03) und einer 256-Bit-Ganzzahl mit dem Namen x. Bei den älteren unkomprimierten Schlüsseln handelt es sich um 65 Byte, bestehend aus konstantem Präfix (0x04), gefolgt von zwei 256-Bit-Ganzzahlen, die als x und y bezeichnet werden (2 * 32 Byte). Das Präfix eines komprimierten Schlüssels ermöglicht es, den y-Wert vom x-Wert abzuleiten. Unterschrift: Eine Nummer, die belegt, dass eine Unterzeichnung stattgefunden hat. Eine Signatur wird mathematisch aus einem Hash eines zu signierenden Objekts plus einem privaten Schlüssel generiert. Die Signatur selbst besteht aus zwei Zahlen, die als r und s bezeichnet werden. Mit dem öffentlichen Schlüssel kann ein mathematischer Algorithmus für die Signatur verwendet werden, um zu bestimmen, dass er ursprünglich aus dem Hash und dem privaten Schlüssel erzeugt wurde, ohne den privaten Schlüssel zu kennen. Signaturen sind entweder 73, 72 oder 71 Byte lang, mit Wahrscheinlichkeiten von etwa 25%, 50% und 25%, obwohl Größen mit einer exponentiell abnehmenden Wahrscheinlichkeit sogar kleiner sind.
Sichetheit [ Bearbeiten ]
Im Dezember 2010 gab eine Gruppe, die sich fail0verflow nannte, die Wiederherstellung des privaten ECDSA-Schlüssels bekannt, mit dem Sony die Software für die PlayStation 3-Spielkonsole signiert. Dieser Angriff funktionierte jedoch nur, weil Sony den Algorithmus nicht ordnungsgemäß implementierte, da k statisch statt zufällig war. Wie oben im Abschnitt ,,Algorithmus zur Signaturerstellung" dargelegt, ist dA damit lösbar und der gesamte Algorithmus unbrauchbar.
Am 29. März 2011 veröffentlichten zwei Forscher ein IACR-Dokument, das zeigt, dass es möglich ist, einen privaten TLS-Schlüssel eines Servers mithilfe von OpenSSL abzurufen, der sich mit Elliptic Curves DSA über ein binäres Feld über einen Timing-Angriff authentifiziert. Die Schwachstelle wurde in OpenSSL 1.0.0e behoben.
Im August 2013 wurde bekannt, dass Fehler in einigen Implementierungen der Java-Klasse SecureRandom gelegentlich zu Kollisionen im k-Wert führten. Dies ermöglichte es Hackern, private Schlüssel wiederherzustellen, wodurch Bitcoin-Transaktionen genauso kontrolliert werden konnten wie die Besitzer legitimer Schlüssel, wobei derselbe Exploit verwendet wurde, mit dem der PS3-Signaturschlüssel bei einigen Android-App-Implementierungen verfügbar gemacht wurde, die Java verwenden und ECDSA zur Authentifizierung von Transaktionen verwenden .
Dieses Problem kann durch die deterministische Erzeugung von k verhindert werden, wie in RFC 6979 beschrieben.
Mining / Re: Bitcoin mining.
Last post by Bitcoin - Feb 28, 2021, 09:27 am
Hashing Power - A hash is the output of a hash function. Hash rate is the speed at which a computer is completing an operation in the cryptocurrency's code. Therefore, the amount of hashes are measured in hashes per second. A higher hashrate increases a miner's opportunity of finding the next block and receiving the block reward.
Luck - The luck of a mining pool is probabilistic in nature. Imagine that each miner is given a lottery ticket for a certain amount of hashing power they provide. If you were to provide 1 TH/s of hashing power and the overall hashing power in the network is 10 TH/s then you would receive 1 of 10 total lottery tickets. The probability of you winning the lottery (finding the block reward) would be 10%. So for every 10 blocks found you should statistically find 1 of them. Now imagine that you found 2 out of the 10 blocks, this means that you found a block earlier than you statistically should have on average. You are lucky! Now imagine you found 0 out of 10. This would make you unlucky. Over the long run statistically you should receive on average 1 out of 10 (or 10%) of blocks, but there is short term variance. For a more in depth article on calculating luck check out this article.
Mining Pool- All in all, mining is attempting to unlock each block to get the reward that is in it; the more attempts (hashes) you can perform per second the higher the chances you have to get the reward (i.e. the more lottery tickets you have the higher your chance of winning the lottery). Because miners by themselves typically don't have enough hashing power to consistently find blocks they join a pool that pools everyone's hash power and combines it to hash blocks. With more hashing power it is easier to find blocks. Then, the reward is split among the miners based on the amount of work they contributed and a small fee is given to the pool operator.
Payment Systems.
There are over 15 payment systems but the majority of pools operate on a PPS, FPPS, PPS+ and PPLNS basis. The difference of these will be explored in more detail than the rest.
Pay Per Share or commonly known as PPS offers an instant flat payout for each share that is solved.
Bringing this back to the lottery example, imagine that a miner submits 1 lottery share to the the pool operator. Even if the pool doesn't win the lottery the miner will still get paid 10% of the block reward (if there are 10 total tickets). The miner gets paid on what is statistically probable rather than what actually occurs. Now imagine that the miner submits 1 ticket and it happens to be the winning ticket. The miner still only receives 10% of the block reward.
What this system ultimately does is take out the "luck" and hence variance in a miners payout. Instead the pool operator absorbs all the risk of variance. In the long-run it should balance out to the statistical mean (obtain 10% of blocks) but in the short-run there can be a lot of variance.
Logistically, the payout to the miner is offered immediately from the pool's existing balance of the cryptocurrency. The possibility of cheating the miners by the pool operator and by timing attacks is completely eliminated.
This payment structure is riskier for pool operators given the variance. Usually only large pools with a lot of reserves can afford to take on the variance risk.
PPS is a very common payout method for alt-coins but not for Bitcoin as further explained below.
Full-Pay-Per-Share (FPPS)
In PPS the miner gets paid the expected value from the block reward. But block reward is only part of a miner revenue. The other part is transaction fees.
FPPS is similar to PPS, but not only does it pay out for the expected block reward but also the transaction fees. FPPS calculates a standard transaction fee within a certain period of time (usually past 24 hours or last day) and distributes it to miners.
FPPS increase the miners' earnings by paying out the transaction fees.
Pay Per Last N Share or commonly known as PPLNS is another popular payment method, which offers payment to miners as a % of shares they contribute to the total shares (N).
Usually the amount of shares submitted during a round (the time it takes to find 1 block) is variable due to luck. However under PPLNS it considers a fixed amount of shares (N), that is not constrained by the round boundaries. In this case N shares represents a fixed amount of shares that is not based on luck. Often N is set as twice the difficulty. For this payment structure, as you mine you earn shares meaning the more hashes you do the more shares you earn.
You only get paid out once a block is actually found (not if it is only statistically probable). Using the lottery example, if you commit 1 ticket (share) to a total of 10 (N) tickets in your pool than your payout will be 10% if your pool is able to win the lottery (find a block).
Using this system actually favors constant loyal pool members over pool hoppers because miners aren't incentivized to "quick mine" by mining on round with low amounts of shares.
Pay-Per-Share + (PPS+)
PPS+ is a hybrid of PPS and PPLNS.
The block reward is paid out on the expected value similar to PPS. The Transaction fees "+" are paid out on a PPLNS method, meaning that the pool's actual transaction fees are distributed to miners based on how much hashrate they contributed.
Which Payment Method is Best?
FPPS is generally preferred by miners (holding all else equal) given they do not have to take on the additional risk of variance (luck). PPS+ is usually acceptable if the mining pool is large enough that its finding blocks consistently.
FPPS is the most risky for a pool operator so it usually comes with a slightly higher fee. PPLNS pools have little to no risk for the pool operator so can have very low fees.
Legal Implications?
As pool operators we want to make sure that we are operating in accordance with the law. We went through the Howey Test and determined that neither a PPS or a PPLNS pool is a security.
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Other Payment Systems:
Double Geometric Method (DGM)
A hybrid between PPLNS and Geometric reward types that enables to operator to absorb some of the variance risk. Operator receives portion of payout on short rounds and returns it on longer rounds to normalize payments.
Equalized Shared Maximum Pay Per Share (ESMPPS)
Like SMPPS, but equalizes payments fairly among all those who are owed.
Pay On Target (POT)
A high variance PPS variant that pays on the difficulty of work returned to pool rather than the difficulty of work served by pool.
Pay Per Last N Shifts/Groups (PPLNSG)
Similar to PPLNS, but shares are grouped into "shifts" which are paid as a whole.
Proportional (Prop)
When block is found, the reward is distributed among all workers proportionally to how much shares each of them has found.
Recent Shared Maximum Pay Per Share (RSMPPS)
Like SMPPS, but system aims to prioritize the most recent miners first.
Score based system (Score)
A proportional reward, but weighed by time submitted. Each submitted share is worth more in the function of time since start of current round. For each share score is updated by: score += exp(t/C). This makes later shares worth much more than earlier shares, thus the miner's score quickly diminishes when they stop mining on the pool. Rewards are calculated proportionally to scores (and not to shares). (at slush's pool C=300 seconds, and every hour scores are normalized).
Shared Maximum Pay Per Share (SMPPS)
Like Pay Per Share, but never pays more than the pool earns.
Mining / Re: Bitcoin mining.
Last post by Bitcoin - Feb 28, 2021, 09:27 am
For some cryptocurrencies, you could still find a block solution within a reasonable amount of time even if you mine alone. It is always hard to run the full node for each coin you want to mine at your local facilities.
Therefore 2Miners presents the SOLO pools for every coin we have. It works the same way as standard pool: you connect to a specified address with your mining software, and you get all the available 2Miners features: statistics, bots, etc.
Mining With One GPU.
Is it possible to mine with a single GPU? Yes, it is. Mining pools exist especially for you. No matter if your hashrate is low, you could still get a regular reward if you mine at the pool. You could never find a cryptocurrency block alone, but the pool could do that. If you have participated in the block solution, you will get your piece of the block reward. Check our guide What to Mine with Low-End GPU.
How the SOLO Mining Pool Works.
SOLO mining is a type of cryptocurrency mining while using your own (or leased) hardware but without any help from other miners. If you find a solution for a block -- you get the coins if you don't -- you get nothing. "The winner takes it all" as the ABBA song says.
You can mine SOLO on your own or via individual SOLO pools. If you have no experience in mining pool setup (both software and hardware), we recommend you to use the special SOLO pools. Before starting your SOLO mining, you need to calculate the probability of finding the blocks with your hardware with We also recommend you to check the network hashrate chart. For example here is the chart for Ethereum Classic (ETC).
Where to Find Network Hashrate and Difficulty.
On the main page of each 2Miners mining pool Network Hashrate and Network Difficulty is shown. If you want to check not only the current information but the data for the last Week, Month or even Year, click the link below the value as shown on the screenshot below.
Where to Find Network Statistics.
You could find the complete network statistics if you click the Network tab on any page of your mining pool. Network statistics is updated in real-time. It could show you how do the cryptocurrency nodes operate when blocks are found, gas used in blocks an many more. Network statistics are indispensable for professional miners (SOLO miners especially).
How Much Can I Earn SOLO Mining.
Let's analyze the suitability of SOLO mining for Ethash mining algorithm for 12-13 mining rigs with 8 GPU's each. This hardware has a hashpower of approx. 3000 MH/s (= 3 GH/s). Go to, enable Ethash algorithm only, enter 3000 in the Ethash hashrate field.
If we are mining the Ethereum Classic, a simple calculation shows us that our capacities will bring us 8.9 ETC coins per day. Block reward in the Ethereum Classic is 4 ETC coins (could be a little less if the Block is Uncle but let's assume we get standard blocks only). In the ideal World (= on average), we will find two blocks per day and get eight coins. On a bad day, we will encounter one block or even no blocks, on a good day -- three blocks and more.
Let's assume you SOLO mine MOAC. Calculator expects 83 MOAC daily reward. Each MOAC block is two coins. This means you find 41 MOAC blocks on average every day if you mine SOLO.
What option do you think is more reliable: 2 ETC blocks a day or 41 MOAC blocks a day? Obviously, MOAC SOLO mining is more reliable. You don't risk much. Even if you find 40, 39 or even 35 blocks you don't lose much. However, if you mine ETC, you could finish the day without any blocks at all. On the other hand, if you believe you are lucky, ETC could bring you much more money. If you find 3 ETC blocks a day, you get a great bonus comparing to ordinary pool mining.
If the power of your hardware is less than 3000 MH/s other Ethash coins would suit you better: Pirl, MOAC, Metaverse, etc. Sometimes the profit is more if you mine MOAC for example with hashpower of 10 000 MH/s or more. It depends on the network hashrate and difficulty. The experienced SOLO miners often choose a specific coin to be mined every day, considering many indicators.
Best Coins for SOLO Mining.
As practice shows, the SOLO mining of simple coins using powerful hardware results into an increment of profit. We base our experience on the Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, MOAC, Metaverse, Pirl, and Callisto coins. If you look at the difficulty chart of the Ethereum and Ethereum Classic, compared to the others, you will understand why the mining of Classic is more profitable than they are. It is always good to get some regular payment, so don't go alone for harder to use Ethereum while you have just one GPU.
Note that Ethereum difficulty is shown in Ph and Ethereum Classic difficulty is shown in Th. 1 Ph equals to 1 000 Th, so Ethereum network difficulty is 20 times more than the network difficulty of Ethereum Classic.
There are some little-known coins on the Ethash algorithm, which you can mine in SOLO - for example, Dubaicoin. You need to be very careful with these coins because they typically are a victim to a drastic change of the exchange rate, and the difficulty of their network will change spontaneously - however, it is possible to make good money on these coins. Usually, the cryptocurrency exchanges for these coins are not very reliable. For example, Cryptopia was hacked and closed the past year.
Let's get back to the SOLO pool itself. Your graphics cards are searching for the solutions (shares) and forwarding them to the pool. If one of these solutions appears to be a correct one, the pool gets a reward for the created block.
At the SOLO pool, a miner whose GPU found a proper solution gets ALL the reward COMPLETELY.
If you are inquisitive, then you probably checked which of the miners from the big pools had found the block solution. Usually, those are the big miners, but at joint pools, they have to share the profit with all small miners.
Block Rewards in Mining.
For instance, in the Zcash network a block reward is ten coins or $675, in Ethereum network - 2 coins or $420, in Ethereum Classic -- 4 coins or $24, in MOAC -- 2 coins or $1. All information about the block rewards could be found on
It is essential to understand that to find the blocks in these networks, different capacities are required. Let's say, 3000 MH/s hardware can find two blocks per day in the Ethereum Classic network or 40 blocks in the MOAC network.
Cryptocurrency Mining Block Time.
One of the most critical parameters of any cryptocurrency network is block time; that is the time needed to find a new block (Read more). Block time is required to make the proper rewards calculations. You could see the real block time on Network Statistics page mentioned above or on the blockchain explorer. For example, use Etherscan for Ethereum network.
Why is block time so important? If you read Mining Difficulty and Network Hashrate Explained you already now that when there are no blocks in the network for some period of time the network reduces the mining difficulty. This allows miners to find "fast" blocks(it is another long story, though). Some pro miners are spending days and weeks waiting for one proper moment to load an enormous hashrate to the particular network.
If you do not have enough hashing power for SOLO mining on your own, you could always rent some on or We know a lot of examples when miners made a vast profit doing SOLO mining.
Now you understand how the mining pool works. Go and make those coins! If you have any questions, don't hesitate to ask the professional miners in our crypto chat.
Different Bitcoin mining Pool Payment Methods (PPS vs FPPS vs PPLNS vs PPS+)
We at Luxor Mining have received a lot of questions about the different payment systems that we and other pools offer. So we figured it would be beneficial to put together an easy to read guide on the various systems.
Company Background.
Luxor is a Seattle-based mining pool operater. If you are interested in getting news from the Mining industry subscribe to our free bi-weekly newsletter here. We cover the latest news from the manufactures, mining farms, pools, rig price changes and more.
We also run Hashrate Index, a data website that tracks how much mining pools on aggregate are paying out to miners on an FPPS method here.
So what is PPS, FPPS, PPLNS and PPS+. Before we jump into it let's define a few terms:
Key Terms.
Block Reward - The block reward simply refers to the new coins distributed by the network to miners for each successfully solved block. In Bitcoin the miner that successfully finds a block is rewarded 6.25 BTC for their efforts. This number declines over time as we approach the maximum amount of BTC.
Transaction Fees - Some networks like Bitcoin also have considerable amounts of transactions fees rewarded to miners. These fees are the total of fees paid by users of Bitcoin (to execute transactions). In Dec-2019 this was roughly equal to 3-4% of the Block Reward but as of May-2020 it was above 10%.
Mining / Re: Bitcoin mining.
Last post by Bitcoin - Feb 28, 2021, 09:24 am
What is Ethereum Mining?
Ethereum mining is the process of earning Ethereum in exchange for lending your computer's processing power to the Ethereum blockchain in order to secure it by processing transactions without a central authority.
How do I know which Ethereum mining pool is best?
All of the pools on our list are pretty good, but mostly, you just want to choose one that is reliable, has low fees, and has a server near you. You will also want to note which kind of payout scheme the pool uses and decide if it works with how you plan on mining (just ETH or a mix a coins)
Can I just join a Bitcoin pool?
No, Ethereum mining pools and Bitcoin mining pools are completely different! Because Bitcoin and Ethereum use different hashing algorithms, the hardware needed to mine each coin is different and so are the pooling protocols used.
How long does it take to mine 1 Ethereum?
This depends entirely on the hashing power you are bringing to the mining pool. For some, they could mine one Ethereum in an hour. For others, it might take a year. How many GPUs are you running? How powerful are they? Are you running them 24/7? What percent of the the total hash rate are you suppling to the network? Answering all of these is important to know if you want to find out how long it will take to mine an ethereum.
You best bet is to take the money you were going to spend on mining Ethereum and just go buy Eth.
How do I know if a pool is paying accurately?
You can check in your Ether mining software that you are really being paid according to your shares contributed. And because you will know ahead of time how payouts work, you can audit the payouts based on the blockchain to make sure you are being paid fairly.
Is Ethereum mining profitable?
Yes, with the proper hardware and a good mining pool, Ethereum mining can be profitable.
For the most up to date data on Ethereum mining profitability for October 2020, check out the video below:
What is the best miner for Ethereum mining?
As of October 2020, the most powerful GPU for Ethereum mining is the AMD Radeon R9 295X2 at 46 Megahashes per second.
How the Mining Pool Works: PPLNS vs. SOLO.
Let's make it clear what mining is and how the mining pool works. We will try to explain it in a simple "For Dummies" way.
If you want to skip education check out how do the professional miners track the network all day long and in certain moments join the mining process using their own mining rigs or NiceHash rented hashing power -> Read our post Solo Mining Pools - How to Catch Your Luck.
What is Blockchain.
Cryptocurrencies run on blockchains. A Blockchain is a sequence of blocks. Each new block is a piece of data. It contains information about the transactions accomplished within the last minutes or seconds (conditionally) since the previous block was found. Blockchain is always compared with a ledger. Each block with transactions is a page of the ledger. By ledger we mean an accountant book, not a Ledger Hardware Wallet for different cryptocurrencies.
How is the new block created? Who could turn the page of the ledger? Each new block contains a "puzzle" based on the data from a previous block. Miners from over the World try to find a solution for this "puzzle" and get rewarded. This irreversibility of the blocks makes the blockchain so unique. Hackers could not delete any block of the blockchain or substitute it.
Why is this irreversibility so important? Why should someone remove a cryptocurrency block? Let's say the Bitcoin cryptocurrency block #500 001 contains the transaction where you've sent $100 000 in Bitcoins to a Tesla dealership to buy a car. When the vehicle is taken from the dealership, you may want to remove that block with your transaction. If you succeed, you have both $100 000 in Bitcoins and a new Tesla car. Hopefully, that is not possible. This is the main blockchain principle.
How Does Mining Work.
The "puzzles" are being solved by your processors, graphics cards, FPGA or ASIC hardware. They are very complicated even for modern PCs, and their solving requires a tremendous amount of time, especially if you are alone. At the earliest days of the mining, any processor or GPU had the sufficient power necessary for finding many solutions per day and getting a reward for the detected block. With an increase of the interest to the cryptocurrencies, the difficulty level of the "puzzles" also increased, and a standalone PC or a single GPU could not find many solutions anymore. The miners have started to build the mining rigs - computers with multiple GPU's installed. The photo below shows the mining rig with eight graphics cards installed.
The difficulty level was rising because the reward for the newfound block was growing as well as it's equivalent in value. That was the time when miners decided to unite their efforts and create the mining pools. Therefore, even weak devices that are working simultaneously on solving the same "puzzle" have a chance to find its solution which would enable miners to create a new block.
Mining Pools Nowadays.
Bitcoin cryptocurrency network has, on average 144 blocks a day. Mining is highly competitive. There are many more miners in the World than 144 and each of them wants to get some reward on a daily basis. However, we have the invention mining pools to take advantage of this issue. Many mining devices work together in a pool to solve the "puzzle," finding solutions for the new blocks. Mining pool is a server that unites the miners. It sends the mining job to his miners and receives the solutions.
The pool who solves the "puzzle" gets a reward. For instance, in Bitcoin blockchain the reward is 12.5 BTC, in Ethereum network-- 2 ETH, in the Litecoin network -- 12.5 LTC, etc. Mining pools get solutions from all the connected miners, and if one of those numerous solutions appears to be a proper one, the pool creates a new block on the blockchain and gets a reward for this newly created block. This reward is shared proportionally to the efforts applied by the miners and forwarded to their wallets. The network will never know which particular miner has found the block solution. The pool would be represented as the miner who found the block.
Mining pool uses the "share" concept. Each device receives a computational task of a significant lesser level of difficulty, and the mining pool checks to see whether or not each obtained solution represents a complete solution of the block "puzzle" or not. This approach helps the pool to distribute the mining rewards. 2Miners uses PPLNS payout system. Pool checks how many shares the miners have sent from the last N shares of the pool and makes the payouts based on that value. Mining shares are also used by the pool to show the display the miner's statistics, especially hashrate.
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